The lavish Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The Walled Palace, one of the oldest group buildings in Tehran, became the seat of the Qajar family which were kings of Iran from 1779 and made Tehran the capital city. Built around a garden featuring pools as well as planted areas, the Palace’s most characteristic features from the 19th century. It represents a new style incorporating traditional Persian arts and elements of 18th-century architecture mixed with technology.
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Golestan Palace located in the historic core of Tehran. The Palace complex originally had been built during the Safavid dynasty in the historic walled city. Following extensions and additions, it received its most features in the 19th century, when the palace complex selected as the royal residence of the Qajar ruling family. At present, the Golestan Palace complex consists of eight fundamental palace structures mostly used as museums and gardens.
Golestan Palace is one of the oldest buildings in Tehran, which was built by Shah Tahmasb, the Safavid king, during the 17th century. Nasserdin Shah completely changed and expanded it. The domes, the vaults, the columns, and the decorations of the ceilings are the imitations of foreign architecture, among which the Diamond Hall is a good sample. Golestan Palace contains Shamsolemareh palace, the government building, Museum Hall, Harem, White Palace, and the Hall of audience.
The museum is a large hall consisting of a middle arch and several corridors with a decorated parlor and big chandeliers hanging from the ceiling. The Mirror Hall was built in the 18th century and painted by mirrors and magnificent paintings from Kamalolmolk. Nasserdin Shah constructed a new palace to store the gifts which had presented to him. It converted to a museum of anthropology in 1968. Nader’s Throne, Mohammad Shah’s golden chair, a geographical globe, Darya Noor pearl (weighing 35grams), and many other precious pieces of jewelry are in Golestan Palace.
The Palace exemplified architectural and artistic achievements of the Qajar era, including the introduction of European styles and Persian arts. Parts of the palace complex presents the origins of the modern Iranian artistic movements.
Golestan Museum Palace
Golestan Museum Palace is a unique and magnificent historical building located in the heart of the Iranian capital Tehran. This spectacular complex has various mansions, some of which we will introduce in the following:
Salam Hall or Museum Hall is one of the Golestan Palace rooms, which is an incredible museum. This hall usage was for official ceremonies during the Pahlavi dynasty. The coronation of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Empress Farah took place in it. Haj Abolhassan Memarbashi was the architecture of this hall and the Hall of Mirrors.
Construction of the museum room began in 1253 AD and took two years. Due to the transfer of the Qajar peacock throne from the mirror room to this hall to hold official Salam ceremonies, its name changed to Salam Hall over time.
In 1346, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi made many changes in this hall’s decoration and arrangement to perform his coronation ceremony. Most of the mirrors and plastering of this hall belong to the same year.
Takiyah Dolat has other titles such as Tekiyah Homayouni Dolatiyeh, Tekiyah Qasr, and Tekiyeh Bozorg Shahi. During the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar, its construction was to perform Taziyeh, a kind of Persian theater ceremony, and holding mourning and fasting rituals during Ashura in Tehran. Takiyah Dolat has been of significant importance not only in terms of architecture and historical aspects but also in terms of the performance of glorious Taziyeh ceremonies.
This building was in the southeast of Golestan Museum Palace and the southwest of Shams-ul-Amara, north of Sabzeh-Maidan, and in front of Shah Mosque in Tehran. The building has three floors in the form of a circle. Its diameter is approximately sixty meters and a height of 24 meters. Its area is about 2824 square meters. In the middle of the courtyard, there was a circular platform for performing Taziyeh. Based on the book Iranian Architecture, a lesser-known architect named Hossein Ali Mehrin is the architect of this building.
The Constituent Assembly, which was formed in 1304 and ousted Ahmad Shah and appointed Reza Khan as head of government, was also established in the same place. The Tekiah Dolat, which is not much available now, is a symbol of Tehran in the Nasserite era. It is one of the few buildings that significantly impact the history of Iranian theater and has also been considered a masterpiece of Qajar architecture.
The Tekiah Dolat Building, considered by some tourists and writers in the West to be similar in grandeur to the Verona Amphitheater in Italy, was located on the eastern side of Golestan Palace, adjacent to Shams al-Amara, and has been named the largest exhibition of all time in Iran.
The name of this building is from the tall windbreak of this building. Nasser al-Din Shah ordered to rebuild the mansion of the hall. The main building plan is in the form of a cross, and this hall decoration consists of a large and beautiful sash along with mirror decorations and plastering. Wind turrets are the only windbreaks decorated with mosaics in Iran.
Beneath the windbreak mansion was a large summer room that was cooled by the wind currents of the four windbreaks and with the help of the middle pool house where the water of the royal aqueduct flowed. Currently, the water flow doesn’t work due to the construction of the subway. Therefore the windbreaks are not used as before.
Aj Hall is one of the main mansion halls in Golestan Palace, which is located next to the Mirror Hall and on the west side of the Diamond Hall. The date of construction of this hall and the pool house below it is not known.
This hall was built before the Salam Hall and the Hall of Mirrors and is one of the buildings of Naser al-Din Shah. Still, later, there were some changes to the facade to coordinate with the other two halls. Previously, this hall had a porch, recently they removed the porch and added a roof to it, but the old columns are still there.
In this hall, during the reign of Nasser al-Din Shah, they kept the kings’ gifts of foreign governments. During the Pahlavi period, it was the reception and official court parties; Hence, they made significant changes in its interior decoration. There are two large pieces of ivory in the current hall, which can be a justification for the name of the Aj hall.